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LANDSEER Genetic Testing & X-Ray for Possible Heritable Skeletal Disorders

When you see a puppy advertised you may see a lot of initials and numbers surrounding the page of the advertisement. This page is being prepared to give you a better understanding as to what those abbreviations and numbers mean. Most likely they are referring to the dogs pedigree number, date of birth and the genetic tests that have been conducted on the dog. Below is a summary of tests performed on the Landseer. This is a relatively small number since currently there are more than 360 genetic tests available specific to each breed. The mode of inheritance of these diseases is from what is called autosomal recessive genes. A dog would get one gene from the mother and one from the father to become affected with the disease. That is the purpose for testing to insure the breeding couple does not carry the same mutant gene. One parent having the gene will not affect the offspring. This parent would be identified as a carrier. Obviously 2 carriers should never be bred together. And an affected dog should never be bred. Here’s the part for concern; the more inbred the dogs are the more chance of the dogs carrying two genes of another unknown disease to our breed. This would be a mutation and a introduction of a new disease into the gene pool is introduced. It possibly could not show up for a generation or more down the line. This is the reason many clubs and breeders use a method developed in 1921 a scientist, Sewall Wright. It is a system where mathematically the COI ; Coefficient of inbreeding can be figured for each dog as well as what it will be for a pair of dogs offspring. This measures the common ancestors in the pedigree when the two are combined. This figure should not exceed 3.5percent inbred. He also made equations for AVK which the ancestral loss is. This measures the uniqueness of ancestors not in common amongst the pair. The mathematical equation is quite complicated and is more easily computed by a computer program called the inbreeding calculator

SOBZYK.EU,. The lowest number you would want on a pedigree for AVK is 85%. You will find the numbers on most pedigrees.

  

Genetic Disease testing: Compulsory

Degenerative Myelopathy (DM) .DM is a debilitating disease of the spinal cord which starts with lack of coordination of the hind legs. The feet knuckle over and are dragged. As the disease progresses the hind quarters become paralyzed. Dogs affected are usually 8 plus years old but can affect a lesser aged dog. Dogs can be graded as Clear, Carrier or A/A. A/A rating should be carefully evaluated before that dog be used in any breedings. It can not determine if the dog will develop DM in their life time but they will pass the gene mutation to their offspring.

 

Muscular Dystrophy (MD)The Landseer carry’s a muscular dystrophy gene which most closely resembles that of humans.The labs are referring to this test as MDL.It is a genetic disorder causing muscle deterioration of the Landseer dog, affecting young puppies. Due to the massive disorder causing limb deformity, problems with the gag reflex, and more, humane euthanasia is the only solution.

 

Voluntary testing: The following tests are recommended tests for breed stock. They are for genes identified in the Landseer. Not considered of epidemic proportions or even in existing in some regions, these tests at this time are at the breeder’s discretion.

 

Cystinuria (CY) Cystinuria affects 60 breeds of dogs and the Landseer has been identified as having the gene. A dog with the disease is unable to filter cystine out of their urine. Cystine is insolvable in acidic conditions so it causes crystal and calculi stones to develop. In males in particular they are very difficult and painful to pass, and surgery could be required. Normal age for this disease would be around 5 years of age but in the Landseer cousin the Newfoundland they can be affected as early as four months.

 

 Malignant Hypothermia (MH) recommended by some labs for Landseer. It is a condition that affects dogs under certain anesthetic and muscle relaxants causing death. Dogs with this disease can also be triggered by an episode of stress.

 

Thrombopathia (CTP) is an inherited blood clotting disorder from platelet type defects. LANDSEER can have spontaneous bleeding of the nose gums mouth ect. Stools could also become tarry and black. First sign of an affected puppy would probably be while cutting a tooth.

 

D Locus: This is the color dilution test. Some breeders have produced grey and white Landseers and this needs to be avoided. Dogs affected with the dilution gene could be affected with color dilution alopecia which is a serious skin disease.

  

Radiographs compulsory in most regions

 

Most breeder are x-raying the hips, shoulders and elbows. During the reading of the films the radiologist will be looking for DYSPLASIA and OCD. Abnormalities of Dysplasia can be hereditary or environmental. The same could apply for OCD. Environmental conditions could be accelerated growth without proper nutrition. Giving the dog supplements, rapid weight gain. A puppy being raised on slippery surfaces or being allowed to jump out of cars or the use of stairs. A pup should not be run on hard surfaces. Early neutering before 6 months is said to be a cause of hip dysplasia

 

Hip Dysplasia.HD Is a common skeletal condition which may be very painful fo the dog. The hip joint is comprised of a ball and socket, If the two don’t fit well together they will rub and grind on each other, There a varying degree of dysplasia, some requiring surgery for the comfort and mobility of the dog.

 

Elbow dysplasia: ED is growth disturbances in the joint of the elbow. The same contributing factors as hip dysplasia can apply. It can occur from unequal growth process of the ulna(wrist) and the radius bone on the foreleg. This leads to cartilage damage.

 

Shoulder radiographs: the shoulder joints can be examined for dysplasia as well as OCD. Osteochondritis dissecans. There can be a malformation of cartilage which forms a flap. Pieces of the flap can dislodge and calcify in the joint causing pain and interferes with mobility.

 

When you look at the gradings of these x-rays you will see see different designations depending if the radiographs were read in Europe or the US.

 

US Grading……………………………………………………………..European Grading   

HIP DYSPLASIA

Excellent…………………………………………………………………..A1.     A2

Good………………………………………………………………………….

Fair

Borderline……………………………………………………………….   B1.     B2 Transitional form (suspicious of HD)

Mild………………………………………………………………………….  C1.     C2 Light HD

Moderate……………………………………………………………………D1.     D2 Medium HD

Severe…………………………………………………………………………E1.      E2 Heavy HD

 

ELBOW DYSPLASIA………………………………………………………ED,     O no reference to ED

Normal………………………………………………………………………..ED.     Border Case

                                         

 

Dysplasia grades 1,2,3………………………………………………….ED 1

 

Shoulder OCD

Normal………………………………………………………………………….0

 

There are two other rating systems but the above two are most common as seen in the US at this time.            

 

Footnote:1 Health guarantees are usually referring to the tests that have been performed unless otherwise specified.

                Sources, OFA, DLC, IPFD, Animal genetic Lab